Jharkhand tackles dysfunctional toilets; to become ODF by Oct 2018

The eastern state of Jharkhand which was carved out of the southern part of Bihar in November 2000, has set a target to become open defecation free (ODF) by October 2018.  As on date, of the total 24 districts, eight are ODF.  To ensure that the remaining districts become ODF, the State is now focusing on converting the huge number of dysfunctional toilets.

According to official data, sanitation coverage of the state was barely 19.06% in October 2014.  Although hundreds of toilets were built earlier as a part of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), nearly all of them were ‘on-pit substructure toilets’.  In such toilets, superstructures were made up of local materials such as clothes, bamboo, tin sheets, etc.  Over time, many of them were either dismantled or ceased to exist in many households.

To address this issue, districts are in the process of verification of such toilets and the state has decided to complete the target of making dysfunctional toilets functional through MGNREGA, MLA Fund, CSR, or State fund; and complete the process by October 2018.

Since the start of the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G) campaign, of the total target of 35,54,860 toilets needed in October 2014, as many as 25,90,972 toilets were constructed till date.  This has tremendously increased sanitation coverage to a whopping 77.83%.

As far as dysfunctional toilets are concerned, as per the baseline survey of 2012, there were a massive 3,38,323 spread across the state.   Here is a break-up of the number of dysfunctional toilets in each of the districts, the number of toilets converted to functional and the balance dysfunctional.

Sl.No District Villages with dysfunctional toilets Beneficiaries with dysfunctional toilets in BLS Toilets converted to functional Balance dysfunctional toilets
1 Bokaro 39 2377 1502 875
2 Chatra 0 697 697 0
3 Deoghar 0 22369 22369 0
4 Dhanbad 0 822 822 0
5 Dumka 1237 60683 7036 53647
6 Garhwa 185 13937 0 13937
7 Giridih 197 17064 3598 13466
8 Godda 118 12198 1 12197
9 Gumla 378 26715 10 26705
10 Hazaribagh 0 2969 2969 0
11 Jamtara 16 303 62 241
12 Khunti 0 2865 2865 0
13 Koderma 0 6380 6380 0
14 Latehar 0 2688 2688 0
15 Lohardaga 0 2299 2299 0
16 Pakur 270 23893 5880 18013
17 Palamu 9 1618 1112 506
18 Paschim Singhbhum 105 4936 2656 2280
19 Purbi Singhbhum 911 71122 32356 38766
20 Ramgarh 0 15913 15913 0
21 Ranchi 606 36197 1386 34811
22 Sahibganj 72 5447 146 5301
23 Seraikela Kharsawan 8 3280 2366 914
24 Simdega 0 1551 1551 0
TOTAL 4151 338323 116664 221658

Besides using funds from District Mineral Foundation Trust (DMFT), Corporate Social Responsibility contributions and State funds, MGNREGA and MLA funds are being used to convert dysfunctional toilets into functional ones.  While a very few families are repairing their own, some districts are also identifying capable families who have dysfunctional toilets and they are being motivated for self construction or repair of dysfunctional toilets.

The state has also trained available masons to construct twin pit toilets; and during the ongoing Swachhta Sahyog Abhiyan, both masons and swachhagrahis of ODF districts are supporting districts which still have a high target of converting dysfunctional toilets.

Other challenges pertaining to behaviour change and toilet usage remain which the state is focusing on.  In this regard, it has commenced many initiatives such as – use of colour coded stickers, IPC activities, CLTS and CATS activities.

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