The eastern state of Jharkhand which was carved out of the southern part of Bihar in November 2000, has set a target to become open defecation free (ODF) by October 2018. As on date, of the total 24 districts, eight are ODF. To ensure that the remaining districts become ODF, the State is now focusing on converting the huge number of dysfunctional toilets.
According to official data, sanitation coverage of the state was barely 19.06% in October 2014. Although hundreds of toilets were built earlier as a part of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC), nearly all of them were ‘on-pit substructure toilets’. In such toilets, superstructures were made up of local materials such as clothes, bamboo, tin sheets, etc. Over time, many of them were either dismantled or ceased to exist in many households.
To address this issue, districts are in the process of verification of such toilets and the state has decided to complete the target of making dysfunctional toilets functional through MGNREGA, MLA Fund, CSR, or State fund; and complete the process by October 2018.
Since the start of the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G) campaign, of the total target of 35,54,860 toilets needed in October 2014, as many as 25,90,972 toilets were constructed till date. This has tremendously increased sanitation coverage to a whopping 77.83%.
As far as dysfunctional toilets are concerned, as per the baseline survey of 2012, there were a massive 3,38,323 spread across the state. Here is a break-up of the number of dysfunctional toilets in each of the districts, the number of toilets converted to functional and the balance dysfunctional.
|Sl.No||District||Villages with dysfunctional toilets||Beneficiaries with dysfunctional toilets in BLS||Toilets converted to functional||Balance dysfunctional toilets|
Besides using funds from District Mineral Foundation Trust (DMFT), Corporate Social Responsibility contributions and State funds, MGNREGA and MLA funds are being used to convert dysfunctional toilets into functional ones. While a very few families are repairing their own, some districts are also identifying capable families who have dysfunctional toilets and they are being motivated for self construction or repair of dysfunctional toilets.
The state has also trained available masons to construct twin pit toilets; and during the ongoing Swachhta Sahyog Abhiyan, both masons and swachhagrahis of ODF districts are supporting districts which still have a high target of converting dysfunctional toilets.
Other challenges pertaining to behaviour change and toilet usage remain which the state is focusing on. In this regard, it has commenced many initiatives such as – use of colour coded stickers, IPC activities, CLTS and CATS activities.